Habitat and Geographical Distribution: Arid and savannah regions of eastern and southern Africa.
Diet: Herbivore. Diet includes a wide variety of plants.
Reproduction: Oviparous. Females prepare nests on the ground. After laying 6-15 eggs, the female covers the nest with earth and the incubation period begins. The incubation period lasts 8-15 months depending on the temperatures.
Behaviour: During the breeding season, the sense of hearing is very important as males vocalise in order to attract females for mating. When they feel threatened, they quickly pull their head and feet into the shell. Males possess neck glands, which inform other individuals of their willingness to mate or fight another male. Hierarchies are defined through aggressive behaviours.
Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN) / Apendix II (CITES)